On the privacy of push notifications

Push notifications are a mechanism through which applications can send and display notifications to users of smartphones. The infrastructure that drives these notifications in the background is a complex mechanism and not without privacy issues.

RFC 9420 aka Messaging Layer Security (MLS) – An Overview

The Messaging Layer Security protocol has been published as RFC 9420, a standard by the IETF. MLS is the first standardized and fully specified end-to-end encryption protocol. The specification is freely accessible, and its security has been analyzed in academic publications.